Elevator electrical knowledge(2)
There are many types of electrical components for elevators. Let's take a look at the basics of the various components of elevator electrical.
5 switch door button
When the automatic position is pressed, if the door opening button is pressed and held, the elevator door is opened for a long time, which can facilitate the passengers to enter and exit the car normally for a long time. Press the close button to close the door immediately. Used to control the opening and closing of the elevator when the position is overhauled.
6 hall call button
The call outside the hall button is used to register the call of the passenger outside the hall. At the same time, it has the function of opening the door in the same direction. If the elevator is running up, if the call is held down, the elevator door will open for a long time. (Some elevators are designed to be closed after a certain period of time).
7 door system
Working principle analysis
Opening the door: When JKM pulls in, the current passes through the motor rotor DM on the one hand, and the door opening resistance RKM on the other hand, from M2 → M3, causes the door machine to rotate in the direction of opening the door, because the RKM resistance value is larger at this time, and the shunt through RKM Smaller. Therefore, the door opening speed is faster. When the elevator door is closed to 3/4 stroke, the switch deceleration limit 1KM is turned on, and most of the resistance of the RKM is shorted, so that the shunt through the RKM is increased, thereby reducing the motor speed and realizing the function of deceleration of the door opening. . When the door is opened, the door opening interruption limit is cut off, the door opening relay is released, and the elevator stops opening the door.
Closing: When the JGM is pulled, the current passes through the DM on the one hand, and the door closer in the closing direction is from M3 → M2 through the closing resistance RGM on the other hand. Because the RGM resistance value is large at this time, the shunt through the RGM is small, so the closing speed is faster. When the elevator is closed to half of the stroke, the first-level deceleration limit 1GM is turned on, and a part of the resistance of the RGM is short-circuited, so that the shunt from the RGM is increased, and the door machine realizes one-stage deceleration. When the elevator door continues to close to 3/4 stroke, the secondary deceleration limit 2GM is turned on, and most of the resistance of the RGM is shorted, so that the shunt from the RGM is further increased, and the elevator door machine speed is further reduced, achieving the second level of closing. slow down. When the door is closed, the door closing limit is cut off, the door closing relay is released, and the elevator stops closing. The total speed of the switch door can be controlled by adjusting the total voltage dividing resistor RMD in the switch gate circuit.
Because when the JY pulls in, the door motor excitation winding DMO always has electricity, so when the JKM or JGM is released, the motor can immediately enter the energy consumption brake, and the door machine stops immediately. Moreover, when the elevator door is closed, a braking force can be provided to ensure that the elevator door cannot be easily opened in the car.
VVVF inverter door machine system
Most of the elevators currently produced use the VVVF inverter door machine system. In the general frequency conversion door system, the control panel provides a power supply to the door system, a door opening signal and a door closing signal.
The frequency conversion door system also has a deceleration switch and a terminal switch, and most of them adopt a bistable magnetic switch. The door machine system has a self-learning function. When the switch to the door machine is activated, it returns to the control panel with a terminal signal for controlling the switch door relay.
Generally, the frequency conversion door machine can set the door speed, torque and deceleration point position. For details, please refer to the door machine system manual provided by the manufacturer or the elevator debugging data for adjustment.
Some inverter door machines lose their position signal after the power is turned off. The door machine will no longer be controlled by the control panel switch door signal. It must be self-learned after power off to work normally.
In addition to being controlled by the control panel switch door signal, some inverter door machine systems have their own limit calculation function. When the force limit exceeds the set value during the door closing process, it is turned to the opposite direction. This force limit calculation fails when the door closing switch is actuated. For this kind of door system, the position of the door closing terminal must exceed the car door lock. Otherwise, the elevator can be operated after the door lock is connected. If the force limit calculation is still valid, it may cause the elevator to open the door during operation,Should be noted.